BSDPORTAL.RU

На этом сайте обсуждаются вопросы использования ОС FreeBSD
 Портал  •  Статьи  •  Форум  •  Wiki  •  Поиск  •  FAQ  •  Обои  •   Официальная документация  •  Новые темы 

Часовой пояс: UTC + 4 часа




Начать новую тему Ответить на тему  [ Сообщений: 2 ] 
Автор Сообщение
СообщениеДобавлено: Ср 15 ноя, 2017 4:45 pm 
Не в сети

Зарегистрирован: Пн 11 апр, 2016 5:33 pm
Сообщения: 31
Сейчас стоит шлюз на freeBSD 9.1, хочу перейти на 11.1, но до этого освоить работу ядерного ipfw nat.
1. Не до конца понимаю в каком случае и главное почему пишут в скрипт ipfw правила с таким префиксом
Код:
${ipfw}
и с таким
Код:
${fwcmd}
или с таким
Код:
$cmd
?
2. Также не понимаю почему в каком-то случае используют правила из скрипта, а в каком-то просто файл вида
Код:
firewall.conf
с правилами вида
Код:
add allow ip from any to any via lo0
?

На данный момент у меня реализован ipfw, но с natd
rc.conf
Код:
hostname="HomeInetServer"
ifconfig_em0="inet 10.0.0.1 netmask 255.255.255.0"
#ifconfig_em0="DHCP"
ifconfig_sk0="DHCP"
sshd_enable="YES"
synchronous_dhclient="YES"
#defaultrouter="192.168.1.1"
defaultrouter="176.15.224.1"
gateway_enable="YES"
dhcpd_enable="YES"
dhcpd_ifaces="em0"
named_enable="YES"
#ftp_server
#inetd_enable="YES"
ntpd_enable="YES"
ntpdate_enable="YES"
ntpdate_flags="-b 0.europe.pool.ntp.org 1.europe.pool.ntp.org 2.europe.pool.ntp.org"
powerd_enable="YES"
natd_enable="YES"
natd_interface="sk0"
natd_flags="-f /etc/natd.conf"
###FIREWALL###
firewall_enable="YES"
firewall_logging="YES"
#firewall_type="open"
firewall_script="/etc/ipfw.rules"
#firewall_nat_enable="YES"
#firewall_type="/etc/firewall.conf"
#firewall_nat_interface="sk0"
#Set dumpdev to "AUTO" to enable crash dumps, "NO" to disable
dumpdev="NO"
#ipa_enable="YES"
#squid_enable="YES"
#moused_enable="YES"
apache24_enable="YES"
mysql_enable="YES"
###VIRTUALBOX###
vboxnet_enable="YES"
vboxwatchdog_enable="YES"
vboxwatchdog_user="root"
vboxheadless_enable="YES"
vboxheadless_user="vbox"
vboxheadless_delay="1"
vboxheadless_stop="savestate"
vboxheadless_machines="Ubuntu"
#motion_enable="YES"
#zoneminder_enable="YES"
#zabbix_server_enable="YES"
#zabbix_agentd_enable="YES"



natd.conf
Код:
log yes
deny_incoming no
use_sockets yes
same_ports yes

redirect_port tcp 10.0.0.10:2006 3389
redirect_port udp 10.0.0.10:6672 6672
redirect_port udp 10.0.0.10:61455 61455
redirect_port udp 10.0.0.10:61457 61457
redirect_port udp 10.0.0.10:61456 61456
redirect_port udp 10.0.0.10:61458 61458
redirect_port udp 10.0.0.10:30341 30341
redirect_port tcp 10.0.0.30:2233 2233



ipfw.rules

Код:
#!/bin/sh

# ipfw cmd
fwcmd="/sbin/ipfw"

# Internal Interface
iif="em1"

# Internal network
int_net="10.0.0.0/24"

# External Interface
oif="em0"

# Internal IP address
iip="10.0.0.1"

#raspberry IP
rasp="10.0.0.15"

# Internal LAN
ilan="10.0.0.0/24"

${fwcmd} -q -f flush

# Check dynamic rules
${fwcmd} add check-state

# Allow localhost internal activity
${fwcmd} add allow ip from any to any via lo0

# don't allow localhost to send packets outside
${fwcmd} add deny ip from any to 127.0.0.0/8
${fwcmd} add deny ip from 127.0.0.0/8 to any

# BLOCKED private network
${fwcmd} add deny ip from any to 10.0.0.0/8 in via ${oif}
${fwcmd} add deny ip from any to 172.16.0.0/12 in via ${oif}
${fwcmd} add deny ip from any to 192.168.0.0/16 in via ${oif}
${fwcmd} add deny ip from any to 0.0.0.0/8 in via ${oif}

# BLOCKED autoconfig private network
${fwcmd} add deny ip from any to 169.254.0.0/16 in via ${oif}

# BLOCKED TV, IPTV
${fwcmd} add deny ip from any to 240.0.0.0/4 in via ${oif}

# Deny fragmented icmp packets
${fwcmd} add deny icmp from any to any frag

# Deny connections to internal network from external network.
${fwcmd} add deny ip from any to ${ilan} in via ${oif}

# Deny broadcast icmp on external interface
${fwcmd} add deny log icmp from any to 255.255.255.255 in via ${oif}
${fwcmd} add deny log icmp from any to 255.255.255.255 out via ${oif}

#Deny virus
${fwcmd} add deny { tcp or udp } from any to any dst-port 135-139,445 via ${oif}

# Do NAT for internal network
${fwcmd} add divert natd ip from ${ilan} to any out via ${oif}
${fwcmd} add divert natd ip from any to any in via ${oif}

# BLOCKED private network from sk0
${fwcmd} add deny ip from 10.0.0.0/8 to any out via ${oif}
${fwcmd} add deny ip from 172.16.0.0/12 to any out via ${oif}
${fwcmd} add deny ip from 192.168.0.0/16 to any out via ${oif}
${fwcmd} add deny ip from 0.0.0.0/8 to any out via ${oif}

# BLOCKED autoconfig private network from sk0
${fwcmd} add deny ip from any to 169.254.0.0/16 out via ${oif}

# BLOCKED TV, IPTV from sk0
${fwcmd} add deny ip from any to 224.0.0.0/4 out via ${oif}
${fwcmd} add deny ip from any to 240.0.0.0/4 out via ${oif}

# Allow established connects
${fwcmd} add allow tcp from any to any established

#DNS
${fwcmd} add allow udp from me to any 53 keep-state

# Allow outgoing traffic
${fwcmd} add allow ip from any to any out xmit ${oif}

# Allow DNS special FOR NAMED freebsd
${fwcmd} add allow udp from any to ${iip} 53
${fwcmd} add allow udp from ${iip} 53 to any

# Allow SSH connection to server
${fwcmd} add allow tcp from any to me 2006 in via ${oif}

#Allow SSH to RASPBIAN
${fwcmd} add allow tcp from any to any 2233 in via ${oif}
${fwcmd} add allow tcp from any to 10.0.0.30 2233 via ${iif}

#Allow Steam&GTAOnline connection 10.0.0.10
${fwcmd} add allow udp from any to any 6672, 61455, 61457, 61456, 61458, 27000, 27015, 27030, 27014, 27050 in via ${oif}
${fwcmd} add allow udp from any to 10.0.0.10 6672, 61455, 61457, 61456, 61458, 27000, 27015, 27030, 27014, 27050 via ${iif}

#Allow TORRENTS connection 10.0.0.10
${fwcmd} add allow udp from any to any 30341 in via ${oif}
${fwcmd} add allow udp from any to 10.0.0.10 30341 via ${iif}

# Allow HTTP connection to the server
${fwcmd} add allow tcp from any to me 80 in via ${oif}

# Allow FTP connection to the server
${fwcmd} add allow tcp from any to me 20,21,64000-64999 via ${oif}

# Allow icmp echo request, echo reply and expire packet TTL
${fwcmd} add allow icmp from any to any

# port 80 for WWW server
${fwcmd} add allow tcp from any to me 80 via ${oif}

# Allow connects from localnetwork
${fwcmd} add allow ip from any to any via ${iif}

# Deny other activity
${fwcmd} add deny log logamount 10000 ip from any to any


На всякий случай ещё
resolv.conf
Код:
# Generated by resolvconf
nameserver 85.21.192.5
nameserver 213.234.192.7



sysctl.conf
Код:
# $FreeBSD: release/9.1.0/etc/sysctl.conf 112200 2003-03-13 18:43:50Z mux $
#
#  This file is read when going to multi-user and its contents piped thru
#  ``sysctl'' to adjust kernel values.  ``man 5 sysctl.conf'' for details.
#

# Uncomment this to prevent users from seeing information about processes that
# are being run under another UID.
#security.bsd.see_other_uids=0
kern.ipc.shmall=32768
net.inet.tcp.sendspace=131072
net.inet.tcp.recvspace=131072
net.tcp.sendbuf_max=16777216
net.inet.tcp.recvbuf_max=16777216
net.tcp.sendbuf_inc=16384
net.inet.tcp.recvbuf_inc=524288
kern.ipc.maxsockbuf=83886080
kern.ipc.nmbclusters=400000


dhcpd.conf
Код:
#
# Sample configuration file for ISC dhcpd
#
# option definitions common to all supported networks...
option domain-name "HomeInetServer";
option domain-name-servers 10.0.0.1;
default-lease-time 3600;
max-lease-time 86400;
# Use this to enble / disable dynamic dns updates globally.
#ddns-update-style none;
# If this DHCP server is the official DHCP server for the local
# network, the authoritative directive should be uncommented.
authoritative;
# Use this to send dhcp log messages to a different log file (you also
# have to hack syslog.conf to complete the redirection).
log-facility local7;
# This is a very basic subnet declaration.
subnet 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
  range 10.0.0.10 10.0.0.200;
  option routers 10.0.0.1;
}
# Fixed IP addresses can also be specified for hosts.   These addresses
# should not also be listed as being available for dynamic assignment.
# Hosts for which fixed IP addresses have been specified can boot using
# BOOTP or DHCP.   Hosts for which no fixed address is specified can only
# be booted with DHCP, unless there is an address range on the subnet
# to which a BOOTP client is connected which has the dynamic-bootp flag
# set.
host KorotaevRUS {
  hardware ethernet ac:22:0b:4c:fc:3b;
  fixed-address 10.0.0.10;
}

host UbuntuVirtualBox {
hardware ethernet 08:00:27:1b:a7:1b;
  fixed-address 10.0.0.75;
}

host Marina_Kostya {
  hardware ethernet 88:9f:fa:84:b7:dd;
  fixed-address 10.0.0.15;
}

host iPhone {
  hardware ethernet 5c:95:ae:20:0e:6f;
  fixed-address 10.0.0.20;
}

host KorotaevKA {
  hardware ethernet 84:38:38:96:e8:5c;
  fixed-address 10.0.0.25;
}

host RaspberryPI {
  hardware ethernet b8:27:eb:15:9c:3e;
  fixed-address 10.0.0.30;
}

host GT-N7000 {
  hardware ethernet 14:7d:c5:98:99:f9;
  fixed-address 10.0.0.35;
}


named.conf
Код:
acl ACCESS { 127.0.0.1; 10.0.0.0/24; };
options {
listen-on { 127.0.0.1; 10.0.0.1; };
allow-recursion { ACCESS; };
forwarders {
8.8.8.8;
8.8.4.4;
};
};


Естественно что на 11й bind и dhcpd заменяет dnsmasq, то настраивать всё нужно там, пока такой конфиг накатал
dnsmasq.conf
Код:
# Configuration file for dnsmasq.
#
# Format is one option per line, legal options are the same
# as the long options legal on the command line. See
# "/usr/sbin/dnsmasq --help" or "man 8 dnsmasq" for details.

# Listen on this specific port instead of the standard DNS port
# (53). Setting this to zero completely disables DNS function,
# leaving only DHCP and/or TFTP.
#port=5353

# The following two options make you a better netizen, since they
# tell dnsmasq to filter out queries which the public DNS cannot
# answer, and which load the servers (especially the root servers)
# unnecessarily. If you have a dial-on-demand link they also stop
# these requests from bringing up the link unnecessarily.

# Never forward plain names (without a dot or domain part)
domain-needed
# Never forward addresses in the non-routed address spaces.
bogus-priv

# Uncomment these to enable DNSSEC validation and caching:
# (Requires dnsmasq to be built with DNSSEC option.)
#conf-file=/usr/local/share/dnsmasq/trust-anchors.conf
#dnssec

# Replies which are not DNSSEC signed may be legitimate, because the domain
# is unsigned, or may be forgeries. Setting this option tells dnsmasq to
# check that an unsigned reply is OK, by finding a secure proof that a DS
# record somewhere between the root and the domain does not exist.
# The cost of setting this is that even queries in unsigned domains will need
# one or more extra DNS queries to verify.
#dnssec-check-unsigned

# Uncomment this to filter useless windows-originated DNS requests
# which can trigger dial-on-demand links needlessly.
# Note that (amongst other things) this blocks all SRV requests,
# so don't use it if you use eg Kerberos, SIP, XMMP or Google-talk.
# This option only affects forwarding, SRV records originating for
# dnsmasq (via srv-host= lines) are not suppressed by it.
#filterwin2k

# Change this line if you want dns to get its upstream servers from
# somewhere other that /etc/resolv.conf
resolv-file=/etc/resolv.conf

# By  default,  dnsmasq  will  send queries to any of the upstream
# servers it knows about and tries to favour servers to are  known
# to  be  up.  Uncommenting this forces dnsmasq to try each query
# with  each  server  strictly  in  the  order  they   appear   in
# /etc/resolv.conf
#strict-order

# If you don't want dnsmasq to read /etc/resolv.conf or any other
# file, getting its servers from this file instead (see below), then
# uncomment this.
#no-resolv

# If you don't want dnsmasq to poll /etc/resolv.conf or other resolv
# files for changes and re-read them then uncomment this.
#no-poll

# Add other name servers here, with domain specs if they are for
# non-public domains.
#server=/localnet/192.168.0.1

# Example of routing PTR queries to nameservers: this will send all
# address->name queries for 192.168.3/24 to nameserver 10.1.2.3
#server=/3.168.192.in-addr.arpa/10.1.2.3

# Add local-only domains here, queries in these domains are answered
# from /etc/hosts or DHCP only.
#local=/localnet/

# Add domains which you want to force to an IP address here.
# The example below send any host in double-click.net to a local
# web-server.
#address=/double-click.net/127.0.0.1

# --address (and --server) work with IPv6 addresses too.
#address=/www.thekelleys.org.uk/fe80::20d:60ff:fe36:f83

# Add the IPs of all queries to yahoo.com, google.com, and their
# subdomains to the vpn and search ipsets:
#ipset=/yahoo.com/google.com/vpn,search

# You can control how dnsmasq talks to a server: this forces
# queries to 10.1.2.3 to be routed via eth1
# server=10.1.2.3@eth1

# and this sets the source (ie local) address used to talk to
# 10.1.2.3 to 192.168.1.1 port 55 (there must be a interface with that
# IP on the machine, obviously).
# server=10.1.2.3@192.168.1.1#55

# If you want dnsmasq to change uid and gid to something other
# than the default, edit the following lines.
#user=
#group=

# If you want dnsmasq to listen for DHCP and DNS requests only on
# specified interfaces (and the loopback) give the name of the
# interface (eg eth0) here.
# Repeat the line for more than one interface.
interface=em1
# Or you can specify which interface _not_ to listen on
#except-interface=
# Or which to listen on by address (remember to include 127.0.0.1 if
# you use this.)
#listen-address=
# If you want dnsmasq to provide only DNS service on an interface,
# configure it as shown above, and then use the following line to
# disable DHCP and TFTP on it.
#no-dhcp-interface=

# On systems which support it, dnsmasq binds the wildcard address,
# even when it is listening on only some interfaces. It then discards
# requests that it shouldn't reply to. This has the advantage of
# working even when interfaces come and go and change address. If you
# want dnsmasq to really bind only the interfaces it is listening on,
# uncomment this option. About the only time you may need this is when
# running another nameserver on the same machine.
#bind-interfaces

# If you don't want dnsmasq to read /etc/hosts, uncomment the
# following line.
#no-hosts
# or if you want it to read another file, as well as /etc/hosts, use
# this.
#addn-hosts=/etc/banner_add_hosts

# Set this (and domain: see below) if you want to have a domain
# automatically added to simple names in a hosts-file.
#expand-hosts

# Set the domain for dnsmasq. this is optional, but if it is set, it
# does the following things.
# 1) Allows DHCP hosts to have fully qualified domain names, as long
#     as the domain part matches this setting.
# 2) Sets the "domain" DHCP option thereby potentially setting the
#    domain of all systems configured by DHCP
# 3) Provides the domain part for "expand-hosts"
#domain=thekelleys.org.uk

# Set a different domain for a particular subnet
#domain=wireless.thekelleys.org.uk,192.168.2.0/24

# Same idea, but range rather then subnet
#domain=reserved.thekelleys.org.uk,192.68.3.100,192.168.3.200

# Uncomment this to enable the integrated DHCP server, you need
# to supply the range of addresses available for lease and optionally
# a lease time. If you have more than one network, you will need to
# repeat this for each network on which you want to supply DHCP
# service.
#dhcp-range=192.168.0.50,192.168.0.150,12h
dhcp-range=10.0.0.2,10.0.0.100,24h

# This is an example of a DHCP range where the netmask is given. This
# is needed for networks we reach the dnsmasq DHCP server via a relay
# agent. If you don't know what a DHCP relay agent is, you probably
# don't need to worry about this.
#dhcp-range=192.168.0.50,192.168.0.150,255.255.255.0,12h

# This is an example of a DHCP range which sets a tag, so that
# some DHCP options may be set only for this network.
#dhcp-range=set:red,192.168.0.50,192.168.0.150

# Use this DHCP range only when the tag "green" is set.
#dhcp-range=tag:green,192.168.0.50,192.168.0.150,12h

# Specify a subnet which can't be used for dynamic address allocation,
# is available for hosts with matching --dhcp-host lines. Note that
# dhcp-host declarations will be ignored unless there is a dhcp-range
# of some type for the subnet in question.
# In this case the netmask is implied (it comes from the network
# configuration on the machine running dnsmasq) it is possible to give
# an explicit netmask instead.
#dhcp-range=192.168.0.0,static

# Enable DHCPv6. Note that the prefix-length does not need to be specified
# and defaults to 64 if missing/
#dhcp-range=1234::2, 1234::500, 64, 12h

# Do Router Advertisements, BUT NOT DHCP for this subnet.
#dhcp-range=1234::, ra-only

# Do Router Advertisements, BUT NOT DHCP for this subnet, also try and
# add names to the DNS for the IPv6 address of SLAAC-configured dual-stack
# hosts. Use the DHCPv4 lease to derive the name, network segment and
# MAC address and assume that the host will also have an
# IPv6 address calculated using the SLAAC algorithm.
#dhcp-range=1234::, ra-names

# Do Router Advertisements, BUT NOT DHCP for this subnet.
# Set the lifetime to 46 hours. (Note: minimum lifetime is 2 hours.)
#dhcp-range=1234::, ra-only, 48h

# Do DHCP and Router Advertisements for this subnet. Set the A bit in the RA
# so that clients can use SLAAC addresses as well as DHCP ones.
#dhcp-range=1234::2, 1234::500, slaac

# Do Router Advertisements and stateless DHCP for this subnet. Clients will
# not get addresses from DHCP, but they will get other configuration information.
# They will use SLAAC for addresses.
#dhcp-range=1234::, ra-stateless

# Do stateless DHCP, SLAAC, and generate DNS names for SLAAC addresses
# from DHCPv4 leases.
#dhcp-range=1234::, ra-stateless, ra-names

# Do router advertisements for all subnets where we're doing DHCPv6
# Unless overridden by ra-stateless, ra-names, et al, the router
# advertisements will have the M and O bits set, so that the clients
# get addresses and configuration from DHCPv6, and the A bit reset, so the
# clients don't use SLAAC addresses.
#enable-ra

# Supply parameters for specified hosts using DHCP. There are lots
# of valid alternatives, so we will give examples of each. Note that
# IP addresses DO NOT have to be in the range given above, they just
# need to be on the same network. The order of the parameters in these
# do not matter, it's permissible to give name, address and MAC in any
# order.

# Always allocate the host with Ethernet address 11:22:33:44:55:66
# The IP address 192.168.0.60
#dhcp-host=11:22:33:44:55:66,192.168.0.60

# Always set the name of the host with hardware address
# 11:22:33:44:55:66 to be "fred"
#dhcp-host=11:22:33:44:55:66,fred

# Always give the host with Ethernet address 11:22:33:44:55:66
# the name fred and IP address 192.168.0.60 and lease time 45 minutes
#dhcp-host=11:22:33:44:55:66,fred,192.168.0.60,45m

# Give a host with Ethernet address 11:22:33:44:55:66 or
# 12:34:56:78:90:12 the IP address 192.168.0.60. Dnsmasq will assume
# that these two Ethernet interfaces will never be in use at the same
# time, and give the IP address to the second, even if it is already
# in use by the first. Useful for laptops with wired and wireless
# addresses.
#dhcp-host=11:22:33:44:55:66,12:34:56:78:90:12,192.168.0.60

# Give the machine which says its name is "bert" IP address
# 192.168.0.70 and an infinite lease
#dhcp-host=bert,192.168.0.70,infinite
dhcp-host=KorotaevRUS,10.0.0.10,infinite
dhcp-host=UbuntuVirtualBox,10.0.0.75,infinite
dhcp-host=Marina_Kostya,10.0.0.15,infinite
dhcp-host=DebianVBox,10.0.0.20,infinite
dhcp-host=bc:ae:c5:c3:e1:fd,10.0.0.50,infinite
dhcp-host=68:7f:74:37:03:ad,10.0.0.65,infinite

# Always give the host with client identifier 01:02:02:04
# the IP address 192.168.0.60
#dhcp-host=id:01:02:02:04,192.168.0.60

# Always give the InfiniBand interface with hardware address
# 80:00:00:48:fe:80:00:00:00:00:00:00:f4:52:14:03:00:28:05:81 the
# ip address 192.168.0.61. The client id is derived from the prefix
# ff:00:00:00:00:00:02:00:00:02:c9:00 and the last 8 pairs of
# hex digits of the hardware address.
#dhcp-host=id:ff:00:00:00:00:00:02:00:00:02:c9:00:f4:52:14:03:00:28:05:81,192.168.0.61

# Always give the host with client identifier "marjorie"
# the IP address 192.168.0.60
#dhcp-host=id:marjorie,192.168.0.60

# Enable the address given for "judge" in /etc/hosts
# to be given to a machine presenting the name "judge" when
# it asks for a DHCP lease.
#dhcp-host=judge

# Never offer DHCP service to a machine whose Ethernet
# address is 11:22:33:44:55:66
#dhcp-host=11:22:33:44:55:66,ignore

# Ignore any client-id presented by the machine with Ethernet
# address 11:22:33:44:55:66. This is useful to prevent a machine
# being treated differently when running under different OS's or
# between PXE boot and OS boot.
#dhcp-host=11:22:33:44:55:66,id:*

# Send extra options which are tagged as "red" to
# the machine with Ethernet address 11:22:33:44:55:66
#dhcp-host=11:22:33:44:55:66,set:red

# Send extra options which are tagged as "red" to
# any machine with Ethernet address starting 11:22:33:
#dhcp-host=11:22:33:*:*:*,set:red

# Give a fixed IPv6 address and name to client with
# DUID 00:01:00:01:16:d2:83:fc:92:d4:19:e2:d8:b2
# Note the MAC addresses CANNOT be used to identify DHCPv6 clients.
# Note also the they [] around the IPv6 address are obligatory.
#dhcp-host=id:00:01:00:01:16:d2:83:fc:92:d4:19:e2:d8:b2, fred, [1234::5]

# Ignore any clients which are not specified in dhcp-host lines
# or /etc/ethers. Equivalent to ISC "deny unknown-clients".
# This relies on the special "known" tag which is set when
# a host is matched.
#dhcp-ignore=tag:!known

# Send extra options which are tagged as "red" to any machine whose
# DHCP vendorclass string includes the substring "Linux"
#dhcp-vendorclass=set:red,Linux

# Send extra options which are tagged as "red" to any machine one
# of whose DHCP userclass strings includes the substring "accounts"
#dhcp-userclass=set:red,accounts

# Send extra options which are tagged as "red" to any machine whose
# MAC address matches the pattern.
#dhcp-mac=set:red,00:60:8C:*:*:*

# If this line is uncommented, dnsmasq will read /etc/ethers and act
# on the ethernet-address/IP pairs found there just as if they had
# been given as --dhcp-host options. Useful if you keep
# MAC-address/host mappings there for other purposes.
#read-ethers

# Send options to hosts which ask for a DHCP lease.
# See RFC 2132 for details of available options.
# Common options can be given to dnsmasq by name:
# run "dnsmasq --help dhcp" to get a list.
# Note that all the common settings, such as netmask and
# broadcast address, DNS server and default route, are given
# sane defaults by dnsmasq. You very likely will not need
# any dhcp-options. If you use Windows clients and Samba, there
# are some options which are recommended, they are detailed at the
# end of this section.

# Override the default route supplied by dnsmasq, which assumes the
# router is the same machine as the one running dnsmasq.
#dhcp-option=3,1.2.3.4

# Do the same thing, but using the option name
#dhcp-option=option:router,1.2.3.4

# Override the default route supplied by dnsmasq and send no default
# route at all. Note that this only works for the options sent by
# default (1, 3, 6, 12, 28) the same line will send a zero-length option
# for all other option numbers.
#dhcp-option=3

# Set the NTP time server addresses to 192.168.0.4 and 10.10.0.5
#dhcp-option=option:ntp-server,192.168.0.4,10.10.0.5

# Send DHCPv6 option. Note [] around IPv6 addresses.
#dhcp-option=option6:dns-server,[1234::77],[1234::88]

# Send DHCPv6 option for namservers as the machine running
# dnsmasq and another.
#dhcp-option=option6:dns-server,[::],[1234::88]

# Ask client to poll for option changes every six hours. (RFC4242)
#dhcp-option=option6:information-refresh-time,6h

# Set option 58 client renewal time (T1). Defaults to half of the
# lease time if not specified. (RFC2132)
#dhcp-option=option:T1:1m

# Set option 59 rebinding time (T2). Defaults to 7/8 of the
# lease time if not specified. (RFC2132)
#dhcp-option=option:T2:2m

# Set the NTP time server address to be the same machine as
# is running dnsmasq
#dhcp-option=42,0.0.0.0

# Set the NIS domain name to "welly"
#dhcp-option=40,welly

# Set the default time-to-live to 50
#dhcp-option=23,50

# Set the "all subnets are local" flag
#dhcp-option=27,1

# Send the etherboot magic flag and then etherboot options (a string).
#dhcp-option=128,e4:45:74:68:00:00
#dhcp-option=129,NIC=eepro100

# Specify an option which will only be sent to the "red" network
# (see dhcp-range for the declaration of the "red" network)
# Note that the tag: part must precede the option: part.
#dhcp-option = tag:red, option:ntp-server, 192.168.1.1

# The following DHCP options set up dnsmasq in the same way as is specified
# for the ISC dhcpcd in
# http://www.samba.org/samba/ftp/docs/textdocs/DHCP-Server-Configuration.txt
# adapted for a typical dnsmasq installation where the host running
# dnsmasq is also the host running samba.
# you may want to uncomment some or all of them if you use
# Windows clients and Samba.
#dhcp-option=19,0           # option ip-forwarding off
#dhcp-option=44,0.0.0.0     # set netbios-over-TCP/IP nameserver(s) aka WINS server(s)
#dhcp-option=45,0.0.0.0     # netbios datagram distribution server
#dhcp-option=46,8           # netbios node type

# Send an empty WPAD option. This may be REQUIRED to get windows 7 to behave.
#dhcp-option=252,"\n"

# Send RFC-3397 DNS domain search DHCP option. WARNING: Your DHCP client
# probably doesn't support this......
#dhcp-option=option:domain-search,eng.apple.com,marketing.apple.com

# Send RFC-3442 classless static routes (note the netmask encoding)
#dhcp-option=121,192.168.1.0/24,1.2.3.4,10.0.0.0/8,5.6.7.8

# Send vendor-class specific options encapsulated in DHCP option 43.
# The meaning of the options is defined by the vendor-class so
# options are sent only when the client supplied vendor class
# matches the class given here. (A substring match is OK, so "MSFT"
# matches "MSFT" and "MSFT 5.0"). This example sets the
# mtftp address to 0.0.0.0 for PXEClients.
#dhcp-option=vendor:PXEClient,1,0.0.0.0

# Send microsoft-specific option to tell windows to release the DHCP lease
# when it shuts down. Note the "i" flag, to tell dnsmasq to send the
# value as a four-byte integer - that's what microsoft wants. See
# http://technet2.microsoft.com/WindowsServer/en/library/a70f1bb7-d2d4-49f0-96d6-4b7414ecfaae1033.mspx?mfr=true
#dhcp-option=vendor:MSFT,2,1i

# Send the Encapsulated-vendor-class ID needed by some configurations of
# Etherboot to allow is to recognise the DHCP server.
#dhcp-option=vendor:Etherboot,60,"Etherboot"

# Send options to PXELinux. Note that we need to send the options even
# though they don't appear in the parameter request list, so we need
# to use dhcp-option-force here.
# See http://syslinux.zytor.com/pxe.php#special for details.
# Magic number - needed before anything else is recognised
#dhcp-option-force=208,f1:00:74:7e
# Configuration file name
#dhcp-option-force=209,configs/common
# Path prefix
#dhcp-option-force=210,/tftpboot/pxelinux/files/
# Reboot time. (Note 'i' to send 32-bit value)
#dhcp-option-force=211,30i

# Set the boot filename for netboot/PXE. You will only need
# this is you want to boot machines over the network and you will need
# a TFTP server; either dnsmasq's built in TFTP server or an
# external one. (See below for how to enable the TFTP server.)
#dhcp-boot=pxelinux.0

# The same as above, but use custom tftp-server instead machine running dnsmasq
#dhcp-boot=pxelinux,server.name,192.168.1.100

# Boot for Etherboot gPXE. The idea is to send two different
# filenames, the first loads gPXE, and the second tells gPXE what to
# load. The dhcp-match sets the gpxe tag for requests from gPXE.
#dhcp-match=set:gpxe,175 # gPXE sends a 175 option.
#dhcp-boot=tag:!gpxe,undionly.kpxe
#dhcp-boot=mybootimage

# Encapsulated options for Etherboot gPXE. All the options are
# encapsulated within option 175
#dhcp-option=encap:175, 1, 5b         # priority code
#dhcp-option=encap:175, 176, 1b       # no-proxydhcp
#dhcp-option=encap:175, 177, string   # bus-id
#dhcp-option=encap:175, 189, 1b       # BIOS drive code
#dhcp-option=encap:175, 190, user     # iSCSI username
#dhcp-option=encap:175, 191, pass     # iSCSI password

# Test for the architecture of a netboot client. PXE clients are
# supposed to send their architecture as option 93. (See RFC 4578)
#dhcp-match=peecees, option:client-arch, 0 #x86-32
#dhcp-match=itanics, option:client-arch, 2 #IA64
#dhcp-match=hammers, option:client-arch, 6 #x86-64
#dhcp-match=mactels, option:client-arch, 7 #EFI x86-64

# Do real PXE, rather than just booting a single file, this is an
# alternative to dhcp-boot.
#pxe-prompt="What system shall I netboot?"
# or with timeout before first available action is taken:
#pxe-prompt="Press F8 for menu.", 60

# Available boot services. for PXE.
#pxe-service=x86PC, "Boot from local disk"

# Loads <tftp-root>/pxelinux.0 from dnsmasq TFTP server.
#pxe-service=x86PC, "Install Linux", pxelinux

# Loads <tftp-root>/pxelinux.0 from TFTP server at 1.2.3.4.
# Beware this fails on old PXE ROMS.
#pxe-service=x86PC, "Install Linux", pxelinux, 1.2.3.4

# Use bootserver on network, found my multicast or broadcast.
#pxe-service=x86PC, "Install windows from RIS server", 1

# Use bootserver at a known IP address.
#pxe-service=x86PC, "Install windows from RIS server", 1, 1.2.3.4

# If you have multicast-FTP available,
# information for that can be passed in a similar way using options 1
# to 5. See page 19 of
# http://download.intel.com/design/archives/wfm/downloads/pxespec.pdf


# Enable dnsmasq's built-in TFTP server
#enable-tftp

# Set the root directory for files available via FTP.
#tftp-root=/var/ftpd

# Do not abort if the tftp-root is unavailable
#tftp-no-fail

# Make the TFTP server more secure: with this set, only files owned by
# the user dnsmasq is running as will be send over the net.
#tftp-secure

# This option stops dnsmasq from negotiating a larger blocksize for TFTP
# transfers. It will slow things down, but may rescue some broken TFTP
# clients.
#tftp-no-blocksize

# Set the boot file name only when the "red" tag is set.
#dhcp-boot=tag:red,pxelinux.red-net

# An example of dhcp-boot with an external TFTP server: the name and IP
# address of the server are given after the filename.
# Can fail with old PXE ROMS. Overridden by --pxe-service.
#dhcp-boot=/var/ftpd/pxelinux.0,boothost,192.168.0.3

# If there are multiple external tftp servers having a same name
# (using /etc/hosts) then that name can be specified as the
# tftp_servername (the third option to dhcp-boot) and in that
# case dnsmasq resolves this name and returns the resultant IP
# addresses in round robin fashion. This facility can be used to
# load balance the tftp load among a set of servers.
#dhcp-boot=/var/ftpd/pxelinux.0,boothost,tftp_server_name

# Set the limit on DHCP leases, the default is 150
#dhcp-lease-max=150

# The DHCP server needs somewhere on disk to keep its lease database.
# This defaults to a sane location, but if you want to change it, use
# the line below.
#dhcp-leasefile=/var/lib/misc/dnsmasq.leases

# Set the DHCP server to authoritative mode. In this mode it will barge in
# and take over the lease for any client which broadcasts on the network,
# whether it has a record of the lease or not. This avoids long timeouts
# when a machine wakes up on a new network. DO NOT enable this if there's
# the slightest chance that you might end up accidentally configuring a DHCP
# server for your campus/company accidentally. The ISC server uses
# the same option, and this URL provides more information:
# http://www.isc.org/files/auth.html
#dhcp-authoritative

# Run an executable when a DHCP lease is created or destroyed.
# The arguments sent to the script are "add" or "del",
# then the MAC address, the IP address and finally the hostname
# if there is one.
#dhcp-script=/bin/echo

# Set the cachesize here.
#cache-size=150

# If you want to disable negative caching, uncomment this.
#no-negcache

# Normally responses which come from /etc/hosts and the DHCP lease
# file have Time-To-Live set as zero, which conventionally means
# do not cache further. If you are happy to trade lower load on the
# server for potentially stale date, you can set a time-to-live (in
# seconds) here.
#local-ttl=

# If you want dnsmasq to detect attempts by Verisign to send queries
# to unregistered .com and .net hosts to its sitefinder service and
# have dnsmasq instead return the correct NXDOMAIN response, uncomment
# this line. You can add similar lines to do the same for other
# registries which have implemented wildcard A records.
#bogus-nxdomain=64.94.110.11

# If you want to fix up DNS results from upstream servers, use the
# alias option. This only works for IPv4.
# This alias makes a result of 1.2.3.4 appear as 5.6.7.8
#alias=1.2.3.4,5.6.7.8
# and this maps 1.2.3.x to 5.6.7.x
#alias=1.2.3.0,5.6.7.0,255.255.255.0
# and this maps 192.168.0.10->192.168.0.40 to 10.0.0.10->10.0.0.40
#alias=192.168.0.10-192.168.0.40,10.0.0.0,255.255.255.0

# Change these lines if you want dnsmasq to serve MX records.

# Return an MX record named "maildomain.com" with target
# servermachine.com and preference 50
#mx-host=maildomain.com,servermachine.com,50

# Set the default target for MX records created using the localmx option.
#mx-target=servermachine.com

# Return an MX record pointing to the mx-target for all local
# machines.
#localmx

# Return an MX record pointing to itself for all local machines.
#selfmx

# Change the following lines if you want dnsmasq to serve SRV
# records.  These are useful if you want to serve ldap requests for
# Active Directory and other windows-originated DNS requests.
# See RFC 2782.
# You may add multiple srv-host lines.
# The fields are <name>,<target>,<port>,<priority>,<weight>
# If the domain part if missing from the name (so that is just has the
# service and protocol sections) then the domain given by the domain=
# config option is used. (Note that expand-hosts does not need to be
# set for this to work.)

# A SRV record sending LDAP for the example.com domain to
# ldapserver.example.com port 389
#srv-host=_ldap._tcp.example.com,ldapserver.example.com,389

# A SRV record sending LDAP for the example.com domain to
# ldapserver.example.com port 389 (using domain=)
#domain=example.com
#srv-host=_ldap._tcp,ldapserver.example.com,389

# Two SRV records for LDAP, each with different priorities
#srv-host=_ldap._tcp.example.com,ldapserver.example.com,389,1
#srv-host=_ldap._tcp.example.com,ldapserver.example.com,389,2

# A SRV record indicating that there is no LDAP server for the domain
# example.com
#srv-host=_ldap._tcp.example.com

# The following line shows how to make dnsmasq serve an arbitrary PTR
# record. This is useful for DNS-SD. (Note that the
# domain-name expansion done for SRV records _does_not
# occur for PTR records.)
#ptr-record=_http._tcp.dns-sd-services,"New Employee Page._http._tcp.dns-sd-services"

# Change the following lines to enable dnsmasq to serve TXT records.
# These are used for things like SPF and zeroconf. (Note that the
# domain-name expansion done for SRV records _does_not
# occur for TXT records.)

#Example SPF.
#txt-record=example.com,"v=spf1 a -all"

#Example zeroconf
#txt-record=_http._tcp.example.com,name=value,paper=A4

# Provide an alias for a "local" DNS name. Note that this _only_ works
# for targets which are names from DHCP or /etc/hosts. Give host
# "bert" another name, bertrand
#cname=bertand,bert

# For debugging purposes, log each DNS query as it passes through
# dnsmasq.
#log-queries

# Log lots of extra information about DHCP transactions.
#log-dhcp

# Include another lot of configuration options.
#conf-file=/etc/dnsmasq.more.conf
#conf-dir=/etc/dnsmasq.d

# Include all the files in a directory except those ending in .bak
#conf-dir=/etc/dnsmasq.d,.bak

# Include all files in a directory which end in .conf
#conf-dir=/etc/dnsmasq.d/,*.conf


Может будут советы по настройке нового шлюза, сам не то чтобы новичек, но не админ, скорее почти опытный пользователь. И хочу наконец-то использовать возможности ядерного nat.
Большое спасибо за любые советы, ответы и комментарии.

upd
Вопрос до кучи, у меня на 9.1 развернута виртуалка с ubuntu, реально ее перенести на vbox в новой 11.1 без настройки с нуля? Что-то мне подсказывает, что достаточно установить сам vbox настроить его, создать vm и указать в качестве загрузочного диска тот самый с ubuntu, предварительно его скопировав, или могут быть проблемы?


Вернуться к началу
 Профиль  
 
СообщениеДобавлено: Ср 15 ноя, 2017 10:08 pm 
Не в сети

Зарегистрирован: Вт 17 авг, 2010 8:48 pm
Сообщения: 492
Откуда: Беларусь
kostyanuch писал(а):
1. Не до конца понимаю в каком случае и главное почему пишут в скрипт ipfw правила с таким префиксом
Код:
${ipfw}
и с таким
Код:
${fwcmd}
или с таким
Код:
$cmd
?

это переменные в вашем sh-скрипте с правилами ipfw
Написание скрипта правил

kostyanuch писал(а):
2. Также не понимаю почему в каком-то случае используют правила из скрипта, а в каком-то просто файл вида
Код:
firewall.conf
с правилами вида
Код:
add allow ip from any to any via lo0
?

Это два способа загрузки набора правил ipfw
Параметры /etc/rc.conf


kostyanuch писал(а):
Может будут советы по настройке нового шлюза, сам не то чтобы новичек, но не админ, скорее почти опытный пользователь. И хочу наконец-то использовать возможности ядерного nat.

нужно начинать с мануалов, чтобы Ваши фантазии не разбивались о реальность ))

kostyanuch писал(а):
Вопрос до кучи, у меня на 9.1 развернута виртуалка с ubuntu, реально ее перенести на vbox в новой 11.1 без настройки с нуля? Что-то мне подсказывает, что достаточно установить сам vbox настроить его, создать vm и указать в качестве загрузочного диска тот самый с ubuntu, предварительно его скопировав, или могут быть проблемы?

никаких проблем. также есть штатный экспорт/импорт в самом vbox


Вернуться к началу
 Профиль  
 
Показать сообщения за:  Поле сортировки  
Начать новую тему Ответить на тему  [ Сообщений: 2 ] 

Часовой пояс: UTC + 4 часа


Кто сейчас на конференции

Зарегистрированные пользователи: Bing [Bot], Google [Bot], Yahoo [Bot]


Вы не можете начинать темы
Вы не можете отвечать на сообщения
Вы не можете редактировать свои сообщения
Вы не можете удалять свои сообщения
Вы не можете добавлять вложения

Найти:
Создано на основе phpBB® Forum Software © phpBB Group
Русская поддержка phpBB
Яндекс.Метрика